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Minority Languages in Primary Education (EMU)

The EMU project was a comparative inventory on the position of 34 lesser used languages in primary education in the European Community Member States.
Each report is written by a local expert and contains a description of the position in his/her language community. The structure of the reports is based upon an item-list, formulated by the Fryske Akademy in order to facilitate mutual comparison.

The reports consist of three parts: (1) structure and form of the educational system, (2) content and extent of minority language education and attitudes, (3) motivations and evaluation. The reports are concluded by bibliographical references and suggestions for further reading. A short sketch of the overall linguistic situation in the community concerned completes the report. The reports, resulted in a comparative study at European level, published first as a working document for the colloquium held in April 1988 on the same subject. This overview contains also conclusions and recommendations for both policy and teaching practice. The completed inventory as well as the colloquium proceedings appeared in English in 1991 and in French in 1994.

  • Albanian in Italy
  • Basque in France
  • Basque in Spain
  • Breton
  • Catalan in Spain
  • Catalan in France
  • Catalan in Alghero (Italy)
  • Cornish
  • Corsican
  • Croatian in Molise (Italy)
  • Danish in Germany
  • Flemish/Dutch in France
  • French in the Aosta Valley
  • Frisian in the Netherlands
  • Friulian
  • Galician
  • German in Belgium
  • German in Denmark
  • German in France
  • German in South Tyrol
  • Greek in Apulia (Italy)
  • Greek in Calabria (Italy)
  • Irish in the Republic of Ireland
  • Irish in Northern Ireland
  • Ladin
  • Luxembourgish
  • North Frisian
  • Occitan in France
  • Occitan in Guardia Piemontese (Italy)
  • Occitan in Piedmont (Italy)
  • Romany in Italy
  • Sardinian
  • Saterfrisian
  • Scottish Gaelic
  • Slovenian in Italy
  • Welsh

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