- Minority languages
- Research & Projects
Safeguarding and preservation of sound materials of endangered languages in the Russian Federation for sound archives in St.Petersburg
At present, many old sound recordings still remain hidden in private archives where the quality of preservation is not guaranteed. In our project, we proposed to make part of these recordings available and to add them to the database developed in St.Petersburg. The aim of the project has been to re-record the material in a storage facility which would modernise the possible archiving activities in the Russian Federation and bring them up-to-date with the present day world standards. In the project we concentrated on a selection of recordings, especially those of some endangered Siberian languages. Partners in this project were the Phonogrammarchiv of the Austrian Academy of Science and the St.Petersburg Institute for Linguistic Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences. From 1 September 2006 until 1 September 2008 the project has been financially supported by the Programme on Endangered Archives of the British Library. More details can be found in the final report of the project.
In October 2006 the local representative of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Region invited members of the project team in St.Petersburg to provide information about the project on Endangered Archives. During this meeting he showed his interest in the reconstruction of archival data on the Nenets language and other aims of this project. As a follow-up on the 12th of December the governor of Yamal-Nenets during his official visit to St.Petersburg signed an agreement of co-operation with representatives of the Russian Academy of Sciences which will make it possible to obtain further support for this work.
Some applications for the use of endangered archives are described in the conference report Voices from the Past: The Use of Sound Archives for the Study of Endangered Languages at the International Symposium on Preservation of the Intangible Cultural Heritage, Beijing, 16 - 18 November 2004.
Our reseach program Voices from Tundra and Taiga has resulted in the following report made by the project team in St.Petersburg on the Archives in the Pushkinsky Dom. Part of this important material is endangered and the further investigation and publication of these invaluable recordings is will be very urgent task for the future.
Overview of material on languages and folklore related to peoples in the Far North, Siberia and the Far East of Russia, stored in sound archives of the Russian Literary Institute (Pushkinsky Dom), Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS)
When it comes to researching cultures and languages of ethnic minority groups living in the Russian North, Siberia and the Far East of Russia, the invaluable contributions made by Russian scholars is well-known. In the second half of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth, fundamental descriptions of the language material and of the spiritual culture of these peoples were published, and voluminous collections of folklore texts were presented in various languages - with translations in Russian or European languages. All these publications have proved to be of long-lasting global importance. In the twentieth century, these collections were supplemented by dual-language dictionaries in the national and Russian languages, thus reinforcing the richness of the dictionaries' contents for the Finno-Ugric, Samoyed, Turkic, Tungus-Manchu and Paleosiberian languages. Detailed scientific grammar books appeared, together with monographs dedicated to a comprehensive description of ethnic cultures and individual problems related to ethnography, folklore and the study of linguistics.
In addition, within the history of Russian ethnography and the study of folklore, there lies an almost unknown area of field expeditions and research projects, such as gathering samples of typical folklore texts in their oral form with the help of contemporary technical sound recording devices.
A series of sound recordings from the peoples of the Far East - collected in the 1900’s by L.Ya. Sternberg - is preserved in the Phonogram Archives of the Institute of Russian Literature (IRLI). These Archives also house a comprehensive collection with recordings of various types of folklore from the Tungus and Mongolian peoples. This material was collected by S.M. Shirokogorov and E.N. Shirokogorova in the period around 1910. The Archives also boast numerous folklore recordings from the Aleutians and the peoples living on the Russian coast along the Pacific Ocean. These recordings were collected by V.I. Jochelson. Also, unique collections can be found with samples of oral national creativity from Southern Siberia - recorded by S. E. Malov and A.V. Anokhin - and a collection of folklore recordings from Kets and other peoples of the Yenisey North. V.I. Anuchin, N.K. Karger and other researchers were in charge of these projects . Collections of phonograph recordings were made by various scholars between 1900 and 1917. Today, for our researchers, these recordings present unique samples of epic folklore genres, of narrative prose and they offer us a multitude of recordings of Shaman rituals from various peoples of the Russian North, Siberia and the Far East. The material enables us to assess the sound techniques used for the recording of the Shaman rituals.
Towards the end of the nineteen-thirties, the Phonograph Archive of the IRLI had become a large centre housing collections for the scientific study of oral national creativity and musical culture of the peoples of Russia and the USSR. Famous collectors and researchers of folklore and musical culture, such as Z.V. Evald, E.V. Gippius, S.D. Magid, B. M. Dobrovolsky and V.V. Korguzalov, worked here as well.
At the end of the nineteen-twenties and the beginning of the thirties, the colleagues from the Phonogram Archive of the IRLI continued their field expeditions in order to collect folklore samples from various ethnic groups of peoples. This was done with audio recordings, and also with informants so as to continue the work in Leningrad. These informants were representatives of the minority groups from the USSR and from abroad. This was the time when a collection of phonograph recordings was compiled with samples of various types of folklore from minority groups in the Russian North, Siberia and the Far East. Initially, this material was worked out by students of the Northern Department of Leningrad University. At a later date, it was followed up by students of the Institute of the Peoples of the North. Concurrently, scholars in Leningrad and Moscow were actively involved in gathering information using phonographs in those places, too, which were traditionally inhabited by the peoples of the North: in West Siberia, the Northern Yenissey area and in Chukotka.
The most impressive amount of phonographic material dating back to the second quarter of the twentieth century is associated with various types of folklore song. A main emphasis was placed on improvisation. It is quite understandable that, during this period, the collectors were interested in improvised songs since the musical culture of these minority groups was easily accessible for ethno-musicological research. The study of prose in folklore, by contrast, demands a profound knowledge of languages since these hold the key to the interpretation of folklore.
Among the recordings of the Phonogram Archive of the IRLI, the voices of Evenki poets Aleksei Platonov and Nikita Sakharov were preserved as well, as was the voice of Nikolai Tarabukin, the Even poet and prose writer. Also, the sounds of Akim Samar - the Nanai poet - Dzhansi Kimonko - the first Udege writer - and other literary and public figures among the peoples of the North of Russia were stored: their voices are all preserved in the recordings. Among the documents associated with collecting this work and the research carried out on the samples of folklore available from these minority groups, there is quite an impressive number of valuable documents that illustrate the history of writing system development for the languages of the peoples of the North of Russia. We know that at the end of the nineteen-twenties, in certain parts of the country, teaching of the mother tongue took place with the help of the Cyrillic alphabet. In 1932, however, alphabets were elaborated for the languages of the peoples of the North on the basis of the Latin script and were officially introduced into teaching and publishing, thus representing variations of a Unified Northern Alphabet. In 1936 and the beginning of 1937, the written language for the peoples of the North of Russia was officially changed to the Cyrillic script.
Written versions of individual texts in various languages, such as the Khanty, Evenki, and Nanai languages stored in the manuscript collection of the IRLI Phonograph Archive, provide a good example that both scripts-Latin and Cyrillic - were not foreign to the indigenous northern performers of folklore texts, nor to those who assisted the researchers in their studies and actively used these scripts to write down the texts in their native tongues.
The basis for the audio-funds of the peoples from Siberia and the Far East in the IRLI Phonograph Archive consisted of collections that had arrived in the nineteen-thirties from the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography. The most valuable elements were represented by the monumental collections reflecting the results of the exploratory activities carried out by the pre-revolutionary collectors. Among these collectors, the following are particularly worth mentioning: A.V. Anokhin, V.I. Anutchin, V.I. Jochelson, A.N. Lipsky, S.D. Mainagashev, Ya. Strozhetsky, I.I. Suslov, S.M. Shirokogorov and L.Ya. Sternberg. During this period in history, their numbers grew, following the results achieved with the activities by the folklore specialists in the Phonogram Archive and also by the musicians of the Leningrad Conservatory. Furthermore, E.V. Gippius, Z.V. Evald and S.D. Magid were involved in an important undertaking with the recording of traditional folklore from students of the Institute of the Peoples of the North.
Among the most significant achievements of the following decades, we should mention a collection of phonograph cylinders - recorded in the nineteen-thirties - from the Moscow State Conservatory. The cultural heritage of the peoples of Siberia and the Far East on audio is also represented by a host of folklore recordings performed by the members of the All-Union study of folklore recordings, produced in the seventies and eighties under the guidance of ethno-musicological specialists in Moscow and Leningrad.
From 2002 to 2004, the members of our project team participated in research on the phonograph recordings from the collection and manuscript material in the IRLI Phonograph Archive, Russian Academy of Sciences. The team took part in a project entitled "Voices of Taiga and Tundra", initiated by Professor Tjeerd de Graaf of the Frisian Academy in the Netherlands. Financial support was made available by the Netherlands Foundation for Scientific Research (NWO).
The following activities were carried out in accordance with the guidelines set:
As a result of these activities, the general catalogue was supplemented with material on folklore from the peoples of the Far North, Siberia and the Far East of Russia. In addition, some errors were corrected, and more precise information was introduced into the reading of certain texts (e.g. the names of many performers). The ethnic relationship of some recordings was updated with the help of today's accepted classification system for the peoples of the North, Siberia, and the Far East of Russia. The hand-written and typed texts of some recordings were clarified, and an interesting series of documents was discovered reflecting various episodes of the work performed by the collectors.
The folklore material related to the peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East of Russia, as preserved in the Sound Archive IRLI and recorded on phonograph cylinders (1900 - 1940) and magnetic tapes (1950 -1990), concern the following peoples:
Khanty collection: No. 091, No. 124, No. 127, No. 133, No. 268;
Mansi collection: No. 124, No. 133, No. 268, No. 427, No. 437;
Saami collection: No. 035, No. 191, No. 148;
Nenets collection: No. 027, No. 035, No. 146, No. 268, No, 436, No. 443, No. 449;
Selkup collection: No. 449;
Ngnanasan collection: No. 489;
Yakut collection: No. 029, No. 032, No. 035, No. 035, No. 268, No. 449, No. 469, No. 491, No. 492, No. 493;
Dolgan collection: No. 268, No. 449, No. 489;
Altai collection: No. 030, No. 064, No. 159, No. 490. No. 494;
Teleut collection: No. 063, No. 159, No 494;
Tuvinian collection: No. 035;
Khakas collection: No. 022, No. 035;
Khakhas (Khachints) collection: No. 25, No. 494;
Khakas (Sagaits) collection: No. 025;
Khakhas (Khyzyls) collection: No. 025;
Evenki (Tungus) collection: No. 020, No. 021, No. 026, No. 033, No. 035, No. 074, No. 094, No. 112, No. 126, No 133, No. 206, No. 449, No. 491, No. 492;
Even collection: No. 035, No. 124, No. 133, No. 206, No. 492;
Orochon collection: No. 021, No. 023;
Udehe collection: No. 124, No. 133;
Nanai collection: No. 020, No. 035, No. 084, No. 133, No. 206, No. 268;
Chukchee collection: No. 206, No. 268, No. 428, No. 434, No. 447, No. 451;
Koryak collection: No. 035, No. 206, No. 268;
Itelmen collection: No. 033, No. 206, No. 268;
Eskimo collection: No. 268, No. 428, No. 447, No. 451;
Aleutian collection: No. 034, No. 035;
Nivkh collection: No. 020, No.035, No. 084;
Ket collection: No. 26, No. 031, No. 065, No. 449.
Manuscripts and typed material on folklore of the peoples in the North, Siberia and the Russian Far East pertaining to the gathering of recordings on phonograph cylinders from the corresponding collection are stored in the IRLI Sound Archive in 14 folders. These folders are numbered as follows: Nos. 28, 34, 38, 51, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 61 and 62, according to the regular description of the manuscript (stored in the IRLI Sound Archive). Folder 65 - which only recently received an inventory number - and another folder without a number contain recordings of Nenets folklore performed by A.M. Shcherbakova in the nineteen-sixties. The material in these folders is diverse and comprises the following types of documents:
According to the ethnic composition of the manuscripts we studied in the IRLI Sound Archive, the folklore samples originate from folklore recordings of the Khanty, Evenki, Nanai, Even, Itelmen, Nivkh, Chukchee, Eskimo, and Saami. Among the folders studied, there is also some material on Mari, Udmurt, Altai, Mongols, and Buryats. The majority of the manuscripts concerns the Evenks (almost all of folder 51) and the Nanai (a large part of folder 57). The material in folder 28 is also interesting: it relates to the Saamis and has texts in the Saami language, together with translations. Folder 34 refers to the Nenets and also contains texts in Nenets with translations in Russian.
The type of documentation of certain texts affixed to their sounds and written in the original language or in translation on the cylinders may vary. Among the documents studied, there are both original texts without a translation and texts with a translation. Some text samples among the manuscripts only have a Russian translation. The original text documents may have been lost or were not affixed in written form when the cylinder texts were deciphered and compared with the recordings which correspond to the written texts. Still, the performer's name is often mentioned in the text, and this tremendously facilitates the search for cylinders with recordings corresponding to the written texts, since we have the existing catalogue of recordings on the cylinders.
It goes without saying that this material is truly unique and of great interest to the history of language study concerning the peoples in the North in the 1930's. As far as we know, there is no information on similar documents in other archives.
The text material we studied mainly includes recordings of songs; some recordings relate to stories and tales in prose and their number is not so great. They are of importance to those studying folklore of the peoples in the Russian North, as well as to those studying history and those gathering folklore of the northern people in the period from around 1900 up to the nineteen-thirties. The existence of written texts and translations stored in the IRLI sound archive facilitates linguistic study of the sound material. The recordings do not require deciphering, but only a comparison between the recorded sound and the written text.
A series of texts with folklore samples from the peoples of the North, which forms part of the range studied, is of interest as far as the history of writing is concerned regarding the peoples of the North. There are texts in the IRLI sound archive written in Latin, texts written in Cyrillic and also parallel texts with both the Latin and Cyrillic version.
For those interested in the study of ethno-musicology and the history of folklore, there is a large collection of notes to the recordings on cylinders, compiled by S.D. Magid (folder 54).
The supplementary material offers descriptions of collections containing material investigated by S.M. Shirokogorov, B. E. Petri and V.K. Steinitz. These collections carry their autographs.
The autographs of some poets and writers from the North are also present among the recording texts, manuscripts and various annotations - such as those of A. Samar and possibly A. Platonov and N. Tarabukin.
Among the material investigated and studied, the material in the Itelmen language and that on Nivkh folklore is most important from a study perspective, as are the texts in Khanty - not very abundant but of high quality - and a comprehensive body of texts in Evenk and Nanai.
For scholars interested mainly in Ob-Ugric languages, there are two audio anthologies on Khanty and Mansi dialects, composed in 1956-1957 by A.A. Balandin with the help of M.P. Vakhrusheva-Balandina (folder 65). This material includes audio recordings of folklore and literary texts in the dialects of the Khanty and Mansi languages. Also, the manuscript fund has a written version of the audio texts in the original language, as well as a Russian translation (unfortunately, not all the Mansi texts have Russian translations). These readers represent quite a treasure for those studying Khanty and Mansi folklore.
There are two directions research can take in using the material from the IRLI audio archive collection for the preservation of languages and traditional ethnic cultures of minority groups in the Russian North, Siberia, and the Far East. The same options are available for the future study of languages and folklore of these peoples, and also for the propagation of traditional ethnic culture of the peoples from the North and their cultural achievements in the last three quarters of the 20th century. The two options are discussed below.
The First Direction
1.First, philological processing of the material takes place. The next move concerns deciphering and the ensuing translations into Russian or English, following which publication can take place - all of which in turn leads to the following stage, namely:
a) linguistic studies of the recorded language, definition of dialect features and peculiarities of the folklore language;
b) a repertoire study of the topic, after which it can be compared with folklore material available in archives and made known through publications.
2.Ethno-musicological study of the song recordings, melodies, song fragments of epic events and shaman ritual texts in song.
3.The ethnographic study of shaman documentation - types of rituals and specifics of performing them. This covers a wide area of interest: the chanting and singing by a shaman without external support; rituals with the help of assistants; accompaniment of musical instruments when ritual texts are chanted and executed; dealing with the dissemination of shaman knowledge; dealing with newcomers within the community; the ritual practice itself and the practice of recreating these rites; the degree to which outside observers and collectors are allowed to use shaman texts, and so forth.
Considering the fact that the IRLI Sound Archive funds contain a large amount of material - collected during field expeditions - on the topic of shamans, it becomes clear that it was not difficult to record ritual texts. The large number of recordings from a significantly abundant number of shaman recordings - made by students of the Institute for Peoples of the North in the nineteen-thirties - tells us that shaman knowledge, mainly in the area of medicine, was widespread among the young generation of representatives of the peoples of the North in the nineteen-thirties. Apparently, some years after that period, the shaman rites were no longer so popular, due to changing cultural priorities of that generation of peoples from the Russian North.
The Second Direction
1.Familiarise the representatives of minority groups from the North, Siberia and the Far East living in their traditional habitat with the best samples of prose, music and decorative folklore (dating back about 70 - 100 years) in order to raise the prestige of ethnic cultural traditions. One should draw attention to the traditional culture of minority groups of the North on behalf of the scientific community in different countries, and one should create the possibility of using this material in the educational process in educational institutions, at intermediary levels and in higher regional establishments. One should also compile archive material and make it accessible for regional museums and cultural centres.
2.Produce CDs with samples of oral national creativity, and vocal and musical art concerning the peoples of the Russian North. The material should be aimed at regions within the Russian North.
3.Compile and distribute material on CDs from collections on the languages and folklore of the peoples of the Russian North, as compiled by famous scholars - such as S.M. Shirokogorov, L.Ya. Sternberg, V.K. Steinitz and others. Thus, scholars and scientific groups in Russia and in European countries can be offered an opportunity for continued, independent work with material dating back to the 1900's and 1930's.
The work carried out within the framework of the above-mentioned project has significantly widened the presentation of what has been achieved by several generations of researchers in the field of languages and folklore of peoples from the Far North, Siberia and the Far East in the 20th century. The catalogues of collections at the IRLI Sound Archive make it possible to fill in the gaps in the list of folklore collectors. The catalogues also enable us to consult the abundant supply of recordings gathered in the 1900's and 1930's, and to open up new pages in the history of the study of folklore of the peoples from Russia in the last quarter of the 20th century. We have truly unique recordings at our disposal which have a great value for the study of almost all genres of folklore of various minority groups. Thanks to the catalogues and the Archive, we are able to form ourselves a picture of various folklore traditions of individual groups and of the voluminous material on different genres.
The audio material in the IRLI Sound Archive enables us - in the widest sense of the term - to picture the development of the sound track recording devices formerly used by collectors. This material should be accessible to those involved in phonetics in their research - geared both towards the study of archive recordings and also to the history of science itself related to learning the audio structure of the language with the help of various techniques. The recordings on the cylinders and magnetic tapes, and the various manuscripts stored at the IRLI Sound Archive will play an important role as a source of authentic linguistic material for linguists specialized in the study of languages spoken by minorities in the North, Siberia and the Far East of Russia, and also, very importantly, for those interested in the Uralic, Tungus-Manchurian and Turk languages. The only item left to bemoan is that the contemporary generation of linguists working with the languages of the peoples of the Russian North has certain difficulties with audio-recording the original language material in situations beyond the contacts with the informant-executioner. Today's linguists working with the languages of the peoples of the Russian North do not have enough experience to translate oral speech from the language being studied into Russian. It is hoped and desired that, in the long run, the rich funds of the IRLI sound archive will be available to their full extent to specialists in languages and folklore of the peoples of the Russian North.
Contribution to the Conference of the
International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives
Building an Archive for the Future
Riga 15 - 20 September 2007
Victor Denisov and Tjeerd de Graaf
Phonogram Archive of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Saint-Petersburg, Russian Federation
In Russia many old sound recordings still remain hidden in sound archives and in private possession where the quality of preservation is not guaranteed. This review presents the result of some earlier projects related to these historical recordings and describes the present project on Safeguarding and Preservation of Sound Materials of Endangered Languages for Sound Archives in Russia. There we propose to make part of these recordings available and to add them to the database developed in St.Petersburg. The aim of the project is to re-record the material in a storage facility which will modernise the possible archiving activities in the Russian Federation and bring them up-to date with the present day world standards. In the project we are concentrating on a selection of recordings, especially those of some endangered Siberian languages. We also give recommendations how to modernise the available facilities in the Russian Federation by joining the International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives and acting according to its standards, recommended practices and strategies.
1. Historical data in sound archives and related research projects
In the last half of the 19th century a great invention was made by Thomas Edison which would change the possibility of doing linguistic research drastically (De Graaf 1997, 2002b). This was the phonograph which since 1880 was used for recording sounds. For the first time in human history people were able to store and rehear acoustic data, in particular speech, and to reproduce it onto other sound carriers. It was not long after this invention that ethnologists, folklorists, linguists, composers, and amateurs began to utilise the new machine to collect information on the oral data and music of cultural groups at home and abroad.
Prior to 1890, during linguistic fieldwork, notes were taken by hand during sessions with informants and this was a laborious process for both the investigator and the informants. The phonograph changed all this and with the new method linguists and musicologists were able to make records instantaneously and to obtain an accurate and objective record of a single performance. Now it was possible to capture the nuances and subtleties of the spoken word and duplicates could be played repeatedly for transcription and analysis, whereas the original recordings could be preserved for future use. When recordings were made, it became obvious that a central facility was needed for the preservation of the valuable data which had been collected. At the beginning of the 20th century this led to the establishment of sound archives, the earliest of which in Europe were located in Vienna, Berlin and St.Petersburg. The sound archive of the Russian Academy of Sciences in the Museum of Russian Literature (the Pushkinsky Dom) in St.Petersburg contains about 10,000 wax cylinders of the Edison phonograph and more than 500 old wax discs. In addition, an extensive fund of gramophone records exists and one of the largest collections of tape-recordings of Russian folklore. These represent the history of Russian ethnography and contain a wide range of materials (De Graaf 2001, 2002a). Many of these recordings form one of the basic collections used in our joint projects with St.Petersburg. The first of these projects on the Use of Acoustic Data Bases and the Study of Language Change (1995-1998) has been financially supported by the organization INTAS of the European Union in Brussels.
We were able to reconstruct some of the many recordings in the Pushkinsky Dom and to make them available for further research, which is not only important for historical and cultural reasons, but also for language description and for the study of possible direct evidence of language change. In a second INTAS project, St.Petersburg Sound Archives on the World Wide Web (1998 - 2001) part of the sound recordings have been placed on the internet and are now available on a special web site for further study (De Graaf 2004). For both projects, the Phonogrammarchiv of the Austrian Academy of Sciences was partner and responsible for the technical aspects. For these projects we first completed the reconstruction of the sound archive material of the Zhirmunsky collection. Zhirmunsky was a famous linguist who worked in St.Petersburg/Leningrad in the early years of the 20th century. One of his main interests was the study of German dialects spoken in Russia. In the period between 1927 and 1930 he recorded many utterances, in particular songs by German settlers, on waxed cardboard discs, which were transferred in the Vienna Phonogrammarchiv. Within the framework of the INTAS project, this collection has been copied onto tape and part of the material is now stored in a special database. A related study has been made on the language of the Siberian Mennonites (De Graaf 2005).
For our third INTAS Project on The construction of a full-text database on Balto-Finnic languages and Russian dialects in Northwest-Russia (2000 – 2003) we prepared an inventory of the Finno-ugric minority languages in the vicinity of St.Petersburg and the southern and middle parts of Karelia. They represent a specific linguistic picture of an area where endangered languages such as Vepsian, Ingrian, Votic, Ingrian-Finnish and Karelian and various types of Russian archaic dialects have been spoken in close proximity to one another up to this day (Gerd et al. 2003).
The sound archives in St.Petersburg also contain important data on Yiddish, the language of the Jews in Eastern Europe, which at the beginning of the 20th century was used by millions of speakers in the Russian empire. In the archives we found an unpublished manuscript The Ballad in Jewish Folklore, together with material on corresponding wax cylinders. Together with specialists in St.Petersburg, we further explored the acoustic data in the sound archives and prepared the edition of the book. This took place in the framework of a project with the title Voices from the Shtetl, the Past and Present of the Yiddish Language in Russia (1998 - 2001), for which we have obtained financial support from the Netherlands Foundation for Scientific Research NWO (De Graaf, Kleiner and Svetozarova 2004).
2. Voices from Tundra and Taiga
Important activities related to linguistic databases in St.Petersburg concern the recordings of Russian dialects and minority languages in the Russian Federation (De Graaf 2004). Within the framework of the research program Voices from Tundra and Taiga the Netherlands Foundation for Scientific Research NWO financially supported our work in the period 2002 – 2005. We combined the data from old sound recordings with the results of modern fieldwork, in order to give a full description of the languages and cultures of ethnic groups in Russia. We studied endangered Arctic languages and cultures of the Russian Federation, which must be described rapidly before they become extinct. Our earlier work on the reconstruction technology for old sound recordings found in archives in St.Petersburg has made it possible to compare languages still spoken in the proposed research area with the same languages as they were spoken more than half a century ago. These sound recordings in the archives of St.Petersburg consist of spoken language, folksongs, fairy tales etc., among others in Siberian languages (Burykin et al. 2005, De Graaf 2004).
In these projects the techniques developed earlier are applied to some of the disappearing minority languages and cultures of Russia: Nivkh (Gilyak) and Uilta (Orok) on Sakhalin and Yukagir and Tungusic languages in Yakutia. Our goal is to set up a phono- and video-library of recorded stories, and of the folklore, singing and oral traditions of the peoples of Sakhalin and Yakutia. Thus the existing sound recordings in the archives of Sakhalin and Yakutia will be complemented by the results of new fieldwork expeditions. The data obtained are added to the existing archive material in St.Petersburg and part of it is made available on the internet and on CD-ROM.
This research project and the related documentation is carried out in close co-operation with scholars in local centers such as Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk who participate in the archiving of the sound recordings and in fieldwork expeditions. They are trained at St.Petersburg State University, and specialists from St.Petersburg and the Netherlands also visit them in order to set up new centers for the study and teaching of local languages and related subjects. For this purpose we organised a special seminar for Nivkh teachers in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk in October 2003 (De Graaf and Shiraishi 2004).
Spontaneous speech and the reading of prepared texts is collected for (ethno)linguistic as well as for anthropological, folkloric and ethno-musicological analysis. These data are (video)recorded and analysed and they will thus illustrate the art of story telling and language use. These texts are published in scientific journals and books with annotations and audiovisual illustrations on CD-ROM and on the internet. The materials will thus become available for further analysis to scholars working in the field of phonetics, linguistics, anthropology, history, ethno-musicology and folklore.
The results of modern fieldwork and the reconstructed data from sound archives provide important information for the preparation of language descriptions, grammars, dictionaries and edited collections of oral and written literature. These can also be used to develop teaching methods, in particular for the younger members of certain ethnic groups, who do not have sufficient knowledge of their native language, in order to make them aware of their heritage. Our project will contribute to the documentation and to the preservation of Russia's cultural heritage. The database obtained will become available on the internet and provide a possibility for the exchange of information with other institutions all over the world. This global collaboration will make it possible to learn about the cultures and languages of the peoples of Russia and it can also provide new methods of teaching these topics. Some of our projects will illustrate the use of the internet for the introduction of teaching methods.
Using a phrase book for school children of Nivkh we recorded a native speaker during our fieldwork trip in 1990. The texts with the illustrations of the book are now shown on the internet together with the acoustic data. The separate phonemes are also given on a special table and by selecting one of them the student can listen to various speech sounds. This has as an advantage that students are able to learn the distinction between various separate phonemes (e.g. four k-sounds) of Nivkh, which are variants (allophones) of one phoneme in Russian. One of our research students and his Nivkh colleague have published a series of books with Nivkh stories, songs and conversation in which for the first time the corresponding texts are recorded on a CD as part of the books. The series, Sound Materials of the Nivkh Language I - III (Shiraishi and Lok 2002, 2003, 2004) appeared as a result of the Japanese program on Endangered Languages of the Pacific Rim (ELPR) and the research program Voices from Tundra and Taiga. This unique material is not only used by linguists, but also by the language community itself, where it can be applied for teaching purposes.
3. Endangered Archives in the Russian Federation
In the summer of 2005, we finished a report on the NWO-project within the research program Voices from Tundra and Taiga, and we published a catalogue of the existing recordings of stories, folklore, singing and oral traditions of the peoples of Siberia (Burykin et al. 2005). This material has thus become available for further analysis by researchers working in the field of phonetics, linguistics, anthropology, history, ethno-musicology and folklore. The information is also highly important for the development of teaching methods for representatives of the related ethnic groups and for the conservation and revitalisation of their languages and cultures.
At present, many old recordings still remain hidden in private archives and places where the quality of preservation is not guaranteed. In a new project, which from September 2006 is financially supported by a special Programme on Endangered Archives at the British Library, we proposed to make part of these recordings available and to add them to the database developed in St.Petersburg. The St.Petersburg Institute for Linguistic Studies (ILS), a partner in the project, is one of the most important Russian centres for the investigation of minority and regional languages in the Russian Federation. Many researchers in this institute have collected sound material and many of their recordings (primary data) are not stored in safe places, whereas the related field notes, manuscripts, card files (secondary data) can be found in the institute or also in private archives.
Another partner in this new project on Endangered Archives is again the Phonogrammarchiv of the Austrian Academy of Sciences. Our aim is to re-record the material on sound carriers according to present-day technology (Schüller 2005) and store them in a safe place together with the metadata, which will be obtained from the related secondary data. It will be important to co-ordinate this with the staff of the Pushkinsky Dom, where the existing collection of great historical value (selected by UNESCO in its programme Memory of the World) can be enriched with these new data. In the project we are concentrating on a selection of recordings, especially those of some Siberian languages, such as Nivkh, Even, Evenki, Aleut, Nenets, Udege and other ones. Thus far we have produced a list of the available recordings in private possession. Most scholars who have collected these data, have approved the use of their recordings and contribute to the project with the preparation of the required metadata. Some of them also have good links with the Pushkinsky Dom and are members of the project group for the program Voices from Tundra and Taiga.
In other parts of Russia similar important collections can be found, not only in established institutions, but many of them are in private hands and thus endangered. As an example we should like to mention the private collections on Nivkh, which are available in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, in Vladivostok, in London and in some other locations. For most of these, it can be said that the quality of preservation is below standard and insufficient. Following our long-standing collaboration with scholars from Sakhalin, we are planning to create facilities in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk for the storage of sound material related to the aboriginal languages of the island. Most important are the above mentioned Nivkh collections, but we should also like to add material on Sakhalin Ainu and Uilta. Of some of these private collections the size is approximately known, but in other cases this first has to be estimated. Within the framework of our project and future new projects, we would like to obtain access to these collections, copy them on modern sound carriers, make a catalogue available and publish part of the material together with the related recordings in St.Petersburg. On Sakhalin and in other parts of Russia, the local scholars will be involved in the preparation of these projects and get support for this from colleagues in St.Petersburg, Austria, the Netherlands and Japan.
4. How to organise sound archives in Russia
As has been stated before, valuable collections of sound recordings can be found in Russian archives and in private possession. Many of these archive materials are unique and of great historical and cultural importance, not only for the Russian Federation, but also for scholars in other countries. Nevertheless, it can be stated that for most of the Russian sound archives the quality of preservation is not guaranteed as a consequence of the following factors:
- Insufficient financial support;
- Lack of technical specialists for the preservation and description of the collections;
- Absence of standards for the preservation and description of the recordings;
- Weak technical archival facilities for the analogue as well as for the modern digital technology;
- Insufficient exchange of information between the sound archives;
- Absence of a national programme for the support of sound archives.
A further problem for the Russian sound archives – beside the forgoing ones - is the fact that until now they have had very limited contacts with similar archives in other parts of the world. It will be important to establish more of these contacts with colleagues abroad and to contribute to their joint activities within the framework of the International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives,
The project Reconstruction of Sound Materials of Endangered Languages for Sound Archives in Russia makes it possible to establish these contacts. In this project, we propose to make part of the Russian recordings available to researchers all over the world and to add them to the database developed in St.Petersburg. The re-recording of the material in a central storage facility will modernise the possible archiving activities in the Russian Federation and bring them up-to date with the present day world standards.
The greater part of the available collections has initially been recorded on magnetic tape, mainly of Russian production. Old open reel tapes are on cellulose acetate base. These tapes have become brittle with age and many are in bad winding condition. Experience tells, however, that most of the tapes can still be played. All transfer work as well as digital storage is carried out strictly adhering to the standards set by the IASA Technical Committee (IASA-TC 03, IASA-TC 04). Equipment and work flow applied in the project will follow closely the experiences made in the Vienna Phonogrammarchiv over the past years, which have also proved successful in several similar projects in China, Romania and Albania.
Following IASA-TC 04, 5.4, for signal extraction from analogue magnetic tape, machines of preferably latest generation will be used: One machine optimised for the replay of studio tapes of higher speeds (19 and 38 cm/s, most of them full track mono). Another machine will be used for original (field) tapes recorded at slower speeds (down to 4.76 cm/s). Digitisation follows IASA-TC 04, 6.5, Small Scale Manual Approach: A high precision analogue to digital converter will be used; archival resolution will be according to de-facto standard of memory institutions 96 kHz, 24 bit. The digital audio work station consists of a sufficiently powerful PC, attached to a desk-top raid of sufficient buffer capacity. Archival files will be down-loaded to four separate sets of LTO-3 tapes, of which two will be stored in different places in St. Petersburg, one in the Vienna Phonogrammarchiv, and one in the British Library. The work-station will also be equipped with a CD/DVD burner for the production of copies for the owners of the originals, and users. Parallel to archival files, access files in MP 3 format will be generated and stored on the desktop raid. For cataloguing and studying purposes within the St. Petersburg Phonogrammarchiv an intranet will be installed to supply signals to access work-stations.
The technical challenge of our project lies in the transfer of the (historical) sound documents into a safe, professionally organised digital repository. The main objectives are to retrieve signals in best possible quality from their original, transfer them into a true file format (wave) and store these files onto computer back-up tapes. Logistically, such work can only successfully be organised in a central place where some kind of technical infrastructure is available. The St. Petersburg Phonogram Archive (in the Pushkinsky Dom in St.Petersburg) will serve for this purpose, for it contains the most important historical collection of sound recordings in the Russian Federation and is already equipped with basic audiovisual machines. The various collections to be safeguarded will be brought to St. Petersburg, where they will be transferred along with relevant linguistic materials from the collection of the Archive itself.
In order to make the IASA standards, recommended practices and strategies more widely known we have translated the IASA-TC03 publication on The Safeguarding of the Audio Heritage: Ethics, Principles and Preservation Strategy into Russian. It is important that sound archives in the Russian Federation will join the IASA and take notice of this and other publications. When in Russia up-to-date sound archives will be available with experienced technical personal and sufficient financial support, they can play a useful role in the International Association.
The availability in Russia of a central sound archive of linguistic data, created with the most up-to-date technical facilities will be of utmost importance, providing a source of authentic linguistic material for linguists specializing in languages spoken by minorities in the Russian Federation. Many of these languages are endangered and it is important to obtain all existing sound material and to make new recordings of speakers of these languages. Other Russian archives will profit from the expertice in the new centre in St.Petersburg and the links with foreign institutions will be strengthened, in particular with the sound archives in Vienna and Berlin. A future exchange of data between these archives will resume the historical relationship which existed at the beginning of the 20th century when they housed the most important collections in Europe. In this way joint international projects will further contribute to the documentation and the preservation of the world’s important cultural heritage. This holds in particular for the safeguarding and documentation of endangered minority languages.
Burykin, A., A. Girfanova, A. Kastrov, I. Marchenko and N. Svetozarova (2005)
Kollektsii narodov severa v fonogrammarxive pushkinskogo doma.(Collections on the peoples of the North in the phonogram archive of the Pushkinski Dom). Faculty of Philology, University of St.Petersburg.
A.S.Gerd, M.Saviyarvi and T. de Graaf (ed.) (2003)
Yazyk i Narod. Teksty Sotsiolingvisticheskaya situatsiya na Severo-zapade Rossii. Sankt-Peterburgskii gosudarstvennyi Yniversitet, Sankt-Peterburg.
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The reconstruction of acoustic data and the study of language minorities in Russia; in: Language Minorities and Minority Languages. Gdansk: Wydawnicstwo Uniwersytetu Gdanskiego, pp 131-143.
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Data on the languages of Russia from historical documents, sound archives and fieldwork expeditions In: Murasaki, K. (red.) Recording and Restoration of Minority Languages, Sakhalin Ainu and Nivkh, ELPR report, Japan, pp. 13 – 37.
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The Use of Acoustic Databases and Fieldwork for the Study of the Endangered Languages of Russia. Conference Handbook on Endangered Languages, Kyoto. Proceedings of the Kyoto ELPR Conference, pp. 57-79.
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The Use of Sound Archives in the Study of Endangered Languages. In: Music Archiving in the World, Papers Presented at the Conference on the Occasion of the 100th Anniversary of the Berlin Phonogramm-Archiv, Berlin, pp. 101-107.
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Dutch in the Steppe? The Plautdiitsch Language of the Siberian Mennonites and their Relation with the Netherlands, Germany and Russia. In: Crawhall,N. adn Ostler,N. (eds.): Creating Outsiders. Endangered Languages , Migration and Marginalisation. Proceedings of the IXth Conference of the Foundation for Endangered Languages, Stellenbosch, 18-20 November 2005, pp. 32-31.
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Federal Cylinder Project (1981)
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Schüller, D. (Ed.) (2005)
The Safeguarding of the Audio Heritage: Ethics, Principles and Preservation Strategy (=IASA Technical Committee – Standards, Recommended Practices and Strategies, IASA-TC 03).
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Sound Materials of the Nivkh Language 1 and 2. ELPR Publications A2-15 and 36.
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Dr. Tjeerd de Graaf St.Peterburg/Paterswolde, September 2007
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